REDUCE ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ENERGY COSTS
If you have an application that does not need to be run at full speed, then you
can cut down energy costs by controlling the motor with a variable frequency drive,
which is one of the benefits of Variable Frequency Drives. VFDs allow you to match
the speed of the motor-driven equipment to the load requirement. There is no other
method of AC electric motor control that allows you to accomplish this.
VFDs are used in applications ranging from small appliances to the largest of mine
mill drives and compressors. However, around 25% of the world's electrical energy
is consumed by electric motors in industrial applications, which are especially
conducive for energy savings using VFDs in centrifugal load service, and VFDs'
global market penetration for all applications is still relatively small. That lack
of penetration highlights significant energy efficiency improvement opportunities
for retrofitted and new VFD installations.
The AC electric motor used in a VFD system is usually three-phase induction motor.
Some types of single-phase motors can be used, but three-phase motors are usually
preferred. Various types of synchronous motors offer advantages in some situations,
but three-phase induction motors are suitable for most purposes and are generally
the most economical motor choice. Motors that are designed for fixed-speed operation
are often used. Elevated-voltage stresses imposed on induction motors that are supplied
by VFDs require that such motors be designed for definite-purpose inverter-fed duty
in accordance with such requirements as Part 31 of NEMA Standard MG-1.
The VFD controller is a solid-state power electronics conversion system consisting
of three distinct sub-systems: a rectifier bridge converter, a direct current (DC)
link, and an inverter. Voltage-source inverter (VSI) drives (see 'Generic topologies'
sub-section below) are by far the most common type of drives. Most drives are AC-AC
drives in that they convert AC line input to AC inverter output. However, in some
applications such as common DC bus or solar applications, drives are configured
as DC-AC drives. The most basic rectifier converter for the VSI drive is configured
as a three-phase, six-pulse, full-wave diode bridge. In a VSI drive, the DC link
consists of a capacitor which smooths out the converter's DC output ripple and provides
a stiff input to the inverter. This filtered DC voltage is converted to quasi-sinusoidal
AC voltage output using the inverter's active switching elements. VSI drives provide
higher power factor and lower harmonic distortion than phase-controlled current-source
inverter (CSI) and load-commutated inverter (LCI) drives (see 'Generic topologies'
sub-section below). The drive controller can also be configured as a phase converter
having single-phase converter input and three-phase inverter output